Bangladesh continues to make progress, especially on economic and human development. Successive governments have managed long-term challenges to peace and stability including terrorism and extremism, subnational tensions, ethno-religious friction, confrontational political rivalries, violent crime, and problems arising from neighboring countries.
Authorities continue to crack down on Islamist militant groups and suspected terrorists and have managed to significantly reduce the risks from groups affiliated with or influenced by the Islamic State and Al-Qaeda. Intolerance towards other religious beliefs remains an ongoing concern and a primary source of sectarian violence and militant extremism.
Political conflict remains a major issue. Rivalry within political parties is very common and causes more casualties than interparty conflicts, killing 122 and injuring 9,892 people in 2017–2018. Several laws have been passed on political assemblies and to strengthen online censorship. The enactment of the Digital Security Act in 2018, in addition to the Information and Communication Technology Act, has put several activists, journalists, and social media users in prison. A number of politicians belonging to opposition parties have been arrested and prosecuted.
There has been some progress in legal protections for women although gender-based violence in various forms remains a persistent problem. Bangladesh continues to house Rohingya refugees from Myanmar—over a million individuals by some estimates. In January 2020, the government moved forward with a relocation plan establishing a refugee camp on the island of Bhasan Char, though Rohingya activists opposed the plan due to fears of the island flooding during monsoon season.